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It takes two hands to clap: Applause-Worthy insights on the fusion of architecture and branding

Q: You have received many awards, including “Travel & Leisure” Design Champion Award. All your projects are sensations. What is the philosophy behind your approach to branded architecture?

A: Any answer to that question has to be multi-dimensional. There is no single answer. Overall, we work with great, sensitive and talented architects, then hold to a basic philosophy that has scalability. I know that I’ve received lots of kudos in terms of the design aspect of the Aman Resorts, but in the hospitality industry those aspects are more than just design elements because our product is not a single element. It has many facets. 

Like clapping hands, for example. One hand by itself cannot produce sound. You need two hands to clap. That’s how it is with hospitality. The right things must come together – the critical elements of design, hardware and software. The experience you get is in the service element that results from these critical pieces coming together.

Q: For Aman, an important branding decision you made was in the naming of the overall brand, as well as in each resort. You use “aman” as a prefix, so there is Amanpuri in Thailand and Amangani in the USA. What is the story behind the name “Aman”? And how does it relate to the brand pillars?

A: The word “aman” means peace, security, safety, shelter, protection, in several languages. We use that prefix and adapt the second part of the name to the location.

The Aman brand has become associated with tranquility and serenity, much like the original meaning behind the name. The brand is not pretentious – the resorts are located in pristine places where there’s not a large hospitality industry; it’s relevant to the location, it has consistency. 

Consistency doesn’t mean sameness, but rather a sense that you look at whatever the element is and you see a common link, a common identity and feeling. Every element is an ingredient in the perception of the product.

Q: How do you create a brand that is founded in something auditory, such as silence?

A: If you analyze the personality profile of an Aman “junkie,” they’re high-powered people. They therefore come from workplaces, social areas or lifestyles that are busy. So what they look for when they break away is the opposite. You never feel a buzz when you walk into an Aman lobby because there are never enough people to form a crowd and make you feel that buzz. 

Everything is simple. Everything is down to earth. All those elements contribute to the wonderful feeling of peace and tranquility. That is what all Aman properties have. 

That’s why you’ll never see a television in the bedroom. You’ll find lots of books in the room, which suggests that you should be reading a book. We can bring a TV into the room, but the number of guests who request that is extremely low.

Q: How did you go about establishing, and then continuously delivering on that brand promise?

A: Aman has stood out and been successful over the years because of consistency in branding and design. When branding and architecture reinforce each other consistently, you will gain permanence and the advantage of leadership. Quality products, consistently delivered, across many years and countries.

Q: What other branding and architectural factors made an impact?

A: I think it’s also fortunate timing. I’ve often thought that if I’d started Aman ten years earlier, it might not have succeeded. The same goes for ten years later – we would have had to play catch-up with someone who was leading the industry. This fortunate timing has nothing to do with intelligence – it’s pure luck!

The brand caught on because it was different – the concept was contrary to the industry mantra at the time, which was, “bigger is better.” We were told that our concept of doing projects with less than fifty rooms would never succeed financially. We know now that wasn’t true. We deliberately chose not to have more than fifty rooms, and we picked locations that were “not yet discovered”. Both of these decisions were contrary to the industry trend at the time. 

Q: How did the Aman brand pillars influence the architects’ design?

A: As far as building the product, we didn’t want any pretense. It had to be very honest, very true. We didn’t want expensive materials or excessive spaces. It was all about good design. That became the foundation of the brand. Then we presented the concept to very intelligent architects and that gave them the direction we wanted.

Q: How would you describe your relationship with architects on your projects?

A: I’m not a hotelier. I started life as a journalist, then became a publisher and in the latter part of my life, I turned to the hotel business. So my easiest explanation is that my relationship with architects is like the relationship of a good editor with a good writer. The true credit should go to the writer, not the editor. But the editor contributes to the ultimate product. 

Q: Aman has become a synonym for unmatched services – how did you achieve that? 

A: Service means a great deal to us and we wanted to be consistent in that. By “service,” I’m referring to three elements. One is the functional. That’s not very difficult. It’s just a matter of training. The second is an aspect people don’t pay enough attention to – that’s intangible services, like a genuine smile, the desire to please, a feeling. The third element is efficiency. In the end, it all comes down to cost. Labor is the biggest cost factor in the experience delivered by a hotel. If you’re working in low labor cost areas, the ratio may be five employees to one guest. In high labor cost areas, there is smaller staff but much higher efficiency, meaning productivity. That balances us out so we can go to a higher ratio, like three employees to one guest. We can afford to do that and reap the reward for paying the higher labor cost because you get much more personalized service. 

Q: What advantage has your unique approach to the hospitality industry made for the brand and user experience of Aman?

A: One reason is lifestyle. That is why I opted to go for less than fifty rooms per resort; with the special little touches and attention to detail that a big hotel company can’t offer.  And not because they don’t understand it or because they don’t appreciate it. They simply can’t do it because they have so many rooms with such short guest stays. Their staff doesn’t have the capacity or the time to memorize the guest’s name and appearance. They don’t have the ability to form a connection. Even if your staff is very polite, in the morning, the guest will hear, “Good morning, Sir.” At Aman, the guest hears”Good morning, Mr. Zecha,” or whatever the guest’s name is. Those small details make a difference. It’s not because we’re so good. It’s just that our chosen format favors more intimate service.

Q: Where do you think professionals are missing the mark when it comes to branding and architecture?

A: Within the hospitality industry I wish there would be more focus on the smaller, intimate, personal-attention brand concepts, instead of continuing the big bulk hotels. For those who are more contemplative and certainly more environmentally concerned, there will always be a market.

A starchitect writing the history of yesterday and tomorrow, an interview with Robert A.M. Stern

Q: Many have referred to you as the architect who inspired the term “starchitect.” How would you describe your personal brand?

A: It’s true I have been labeled a star architect, but I am not interested in the star approach typical of many talented architects who design buildings as if they were self-portraits.
Instead my partners and I hope to stand for a seriousness of purpose, scholarly approach, commitment to quality, responsibility to the community and to the environment. We seek to honor our brand—with the full knowledge that getting the brand right is tricky, and making every effort to be sure that it evolves appropriately in the face of new challenges. We’re always worried about it and we don’t take on a project if we don’t think it’s suitable for the brand.

I do not desire for every one of my buildings to look alike or display my individual stamp.

Q: What do you think about branding for architecture?

A: I am interested in how you have a brand that is based on a personality. And then what happens when the personality disappears – whether the personality retires, like Calvin Klein, which happens a lot in fashion, or dies, like Coco Chanel. We still have Chanel as a brand. So what does that mean? Now what about architecture? Certain brands existed in architecture long after the progenitors of an identifiable approach. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, or SOM, is a brand. In this office we’ve been thinking about Robert A.M. Stern Architects, and then almost by accident RAMSA appeared as the short acronym that was on working drawings and in contracts. So now Robert A.M. Stern Architects/RAMSA is, in a way, a brand. This is something my younger colleagues and I think about a lot as I get older and they move forward into the future.

Q: What would you say RAMSA stands for as a brand?

We don’t have an equivalent of the little black dress. Quite the contrary.

A: Our many different kinds of “product” range from houses to office buildings, to residential buildings. We seek an appropriate individual identity for each. Our brand seeks to unite the work and to share an attitude. For many architects, design is an applied science, an exercise in systems technology. We respect technology and seek the very best systems to realize our designs, but we stand for architectural design that has a strong foundation in the history of architecture; that moves the story forward incrementally rather than by explosive leaps and bounds.

So you can come to us and know that your project will have its own history but also be confident that you are buying something that has deep roots in the traditions—dare I say, the culture?—of architecture.

Q: How does the RAMSA brand compare to others in the profession?

A: Not every architect or designer is by talent or inclination inspired to connect; many seem intent on piling breakthrough upon breakthrough. They seem more interested in breaking the mold than anything else. Typically, these are what Mies van der Rohe derided as “Monday morning architects.”

There are a few in architecture who break the mold in such a profound way that they do create an iconic brand based on a singular approach

A great example of an architect who broke the mold is Zaha Hadid. But it will be interesting to see how Zaha Hadid’s firm’s work will remain consistent to her vision despite her untimely passing.

Q: The Seventh Art produced three branding books for the iconic 20 East End Avenue project. We created them for the sales office, to familiarize prospective buyers with the project’s narrative. One of the three books was dedicated solely to you – entitled “Process,” it explained how the building came into being and RAMSA’s design process. How would you summarize RAMSA’s signature process?

A: The narrative in the branding book is typical of how we work in general. We work in teams, with studios led by design partners. At 20 East End Avenue my partner Paul Whalen led the team in close collaboration with our partner Michael Jones. My job is to work principally at the conceptual level and then to monitor the progress of a design, a process that continues until the ribbon is cut and frequently even after that. I think people are interested in how we work, in how we translate a series of sketches and models into working drawings, and to see to it that the buildings fulfill a wide range of expectations—our clients’ come first but also the expectations of the public.

Even before we begin design, we carefully research the neighborhood in which our building is to take place.

We research historic precedents, which may have nothing to do with immediate context but a lot to do with the kind of building we’re designing.

Q: Seventeen books have been published about you and your firm’s work. It would be an understatement to conclude that the public is fascinated by you. From your perspective, what do you think onlookers find most intriguing?

A: Our books make it possible for others to delve into our work process and to look at the repertoire of details that we have developed over the years. They want to see how our team works together but we also acknowledge that clients need a design leader. Of course there are many people who work together within the relationship between clients and architects—and we strive to have enduring relationships with our clients so that they will remain loyal to our brand. Some architects like to be seen as authoritarian figures, imposing their vision on the client. And some clients like that; they want to be told what is good.

Then there are clients that like to be cuddled. We are the cuddlers.

Q: Can you elaborate on branding for institutions and what are the impacting factors?

Sometimes an institution will break from their brand and build something that is unlike what people would expect. In this case, branding is a synonym for “style.”

A: Mixing up styles on a college campus, for example, sometimes works, opening up the conversation, symbolizing broadening horizons. But often it doesn’t work. If you depart from what you have established over a long period of time, it can add spice to the stew, as it were, with some new flavor—as Yale did in the 1950s and 1960s. But if you add too much spice you are likely to compromise the integrity of the whole. It depends on the degree of departure, I suppose, and the quality of the departure, and the timing of the departure. Those are things I think about a lot: the degree, quality, and timing of departures from an established brand—or within the brand, which is the hardest to pull off.


*This is an excerpt from the upcoming book by The Seventh Art’s founder, Michel Mein: “Branded by design: Construction at the Intersection of Architecture and Branding”


Going [back to] Dutch: Architecture branded by culture, an interview with Piet Boon

You have been called one of the most relevant and iconic designers of our time. What would you say is the magic behind your mark?

At Piet Boon Studio we feel very privileged to be able to do the work that we do and are humbled that we are given the opportunity to demonstrate our expertise: balancing functionality, aesthetics and individuality.

‘Our magic touch? We see, we feel, we listen, and we create.’

We’re always in search of the perfect fusion of ingredients that together form an extraordinary design. Our signature design experiences are informed by keen technical insight, never compromising on quality and perpetually paying attention to outstanding detail.

‘We design projects to last, striving to create designs that both stand the test of time and increase in value.’

You have become a personal brand for interior design in Holland. How does that brand extend into the Piet Boon Studio?

The foundation of Studio Piet Boon was laid over thirty years ago when I decided to start my own design practice. For reasons of convenience I named the practice after myself, turning myself into a personal brand. In a sense, the person and the brand are therefore one and the same.

That small design practice, founded in 1983, has now grown into a global operating design company. We have gone from the person Piet Boon to the brand Studio Piet Boon. That shift was inevitable considering the growth of the company and my own mortality. Nowadays I act as the spokesperson for the brand.

The way I brand myself extends into The Studio and is inextricably linked to how we approach our craft.

In everything we do, our decisions come down to the same three things: functionality, aesthetics and individuality. Creating balance and the timeless comfortable design that stems from it.

Where does branding meet architecture in Studio Piet Boon projects?

Using branding and brands as a means of identification has become increasingly important in development.

Branding adds a level of quality to a project, but it also creates trust, adds worth and provides homeowners the opportunity to associate themselves with a certain lifestyle.

Our approach to the intersection of exterior and interior design and branding in our work varies from project to project, but one always influences the other. When the client has already defined a strong brand vision for a project, we use that vision as a framework in which we integrate the Studio Piet Boon design philosophy.

What are the main reasons Studio Piet Boon is commissioned?

Never failing to inspire. Our background in construction allows us to speak the language of realization as well as the language of design. True to our values, we seek out the ultimate match between our beliefs and those of our clients. This leads to a unique set of themes that form the creative building blocks of a concept. This is why clients choose to work with Studio Piet Boon. That, and because we have a great sense of humor.

What impact has the inclusion of branding made on your projects?

Over the years we have managed to build a global proven track record in branded residential development based on our philosophy of balancing functionality, aesthetics, and individuality into one-of-a-kind design experiences. Successful in Europe, Asia, Americas and the Middle East, we’ve seen our blend of unique architecture, design and brand marketing add substantial value to a residential property, thereby creating a competitive advantage and sales velocity. In order for the branding to be strong, our underlying project must be as well. This is where our philosophy and emphasis on designing distinguishing interiors matters a great deal.

We create projects that stand out, compete at the highest level, and boast a unique identity that clients can identify with.

Your Huys penthouses in NoMad district have been called the vanguard of a Dutch renaissance in New York City – you turned a historic loft building at 404 Park Avenue South into condominiums with a distinctive Dutch twist. How did you incorporate Dutch design as an element of the project’s brand and express it throughout the building?

A Dutch design theme for the Huys penthouses was more or less a given, since the Dutch developer, Kroonenberg Groep, deliberately chose to work with an all-Dutch team on this project. To not brand Huys as Dutch would have been a missed opportunity.

However, our design is not your stereotypical “Dutch design.” We have our own distinctive style. Our interpretation of the theme was to complement our designs by bringing in, amongst others, Dutch artist Frederik Molenschot to design the bronze apartment numbers that adorn every residence and entrance, as well as Dutch landscape architect Piet Oudolf for the rooftop garden.

Oosten is another iconic project where you were tasked with bringing to life a Dutch-inspired brand vision. How did having a set branding vision affect your work?

We always emphasize a strong connection to the client’s wishes and needs. After all, these are the expectations that we need to meet and try to exceed with our designs.

The Seventh Art created a strong and clearly defined brand vision for Oosten, and this gave us a strong framework for integrating our unique design identity.

A key objective for Oosten was to design community and living spaces that would enrich the lives of Williamsburg’s residents. In what ways does Oosten’s design bring people and communities together?

Since diversity has informed the Williamsburg community for centuries, the goal of our design was to facilitate and enrich the existing synergy. We wanted the community spaces to encourage social interaction. That’s why Oosten has a large common area at the entrance, a shared roof deck, and many other spaces that foster interaction and create a community within the building; this includes a library, fitness center, steam and sauna rooms, juice and coffee bar, and a children’s playroom.

The macro design of the project continued these priorities. Oosten is unique in its varied typology of units, with 216 high-end homes, from luxurious studios to extraordinary townhouses. Each unit combines to form not only a greater building but also the fabric of a neighborhood.

In both the naming of the project and bringing in an iconic Dutch designer, Oosten drew from a specific culture.

How did you determine which aspects of the Dutch tradition to include?

The nice thing about Brooklyn, and New York for that matter, is that it is inextricably linked to Dutch heritage. Three-hundred and-fifty years ago, Dutch settlers founded the small town of “Breuckelen,” so in a way the location for Oosten was Dutch in its history.

Rather than perpetuating the stereotypical ideas of Dutch culture— like windmills and wooden clogs—our design for Oosten was informed by the Dutch way of designing efficient and comfortable living spaces in urban environments of all sizes. We have the luxury of designing standalone villas but we also love the challenge of designing in urban city centers, whether that includes four hundred-year-old Amsterdam canal houses or urban Brooklyn apartments.

How do you think the Oosten’s Dutch inspiration and references impact the building’s residents?

Dutch culture is inherent in the subtleties of our design identity. In Oosten owners find not only beautiful interiors that function well and provide a home for living but also amenities and features that are connected to the bigger identity of Oosten within the Williamsburg community and neighborhood.

We design from the inside out, with the details of daily life carefully considered in the design of a vibrant connection to the exterior world. This is a case of Dutch design accompanied by a Dutch manner of living.


*This is an excerpt from the upcoming book by The Seventh Art’s founder, Michel Mein: “Branded by design: Construction at the Intersection of Architecture and Branding”

Constructing history in New York City, an interview with William L. Zeckendorf

When you approach the intersection of branding and architecture in your projects, which comes first?

Architecture. We start with architecture and then the brand follows. This is mainly because, from our perspective, the brand is primarily based on the specific in-unit finishes, exteriors, public spaces, and interior architecture.

The brand is like a translator of the building’s architecture.

If the architecture is great, why bother branding a building?

There’s also a social reason to brand a building. I think that’s where respect of local architectural themes comes to the forefront. If you don’t respect the neighborhood and its architectural themes or history, the building will be jarring and inconsistent. Of course, there are exceptions to this philosophy and commercial areas offer a little more leeway in terms of sticking out, but residential areas are really not a place to experiment with drastically different architectural styles. Being respectful and not drawing attention to yourself by jarring onlookers then becomes a pillar of how the building is perceived and hence an aspect of that building’s brand in the eyes of onlookers.

A great brand can amplify the architectural themes, making them more pronounced or increasing the public’s awareness of them.

At what point do you bring branding experts into a project?

We start with the architects, then go through all the zoning and legal work, and then we bring in the branders about midway through the development process. We’ll show them the architecture we’ve decided on and let the branders work their craft from there.

You and your family have changed New York City real estate — and not just the city’s façade. How would you summarize your legacy?

My brother, Arthur, and I are lifelong New Yorkers, so we always try to respect the city’s history.

We see respecting the city’s architecture as a means of demonstrating that respect.

We try hard to always work with the finest architects who share those values, and carefully and thoughtfully incorporate the unique architectural aspects of every location and its neighborhood into the plans for a given project. Even if it’s trendy or in-demand, we never want to build a shiny glass tower in a traditional, granite-dominated neighborhood, for example. After we’ve done our research and explored all aspects, we meet with different architects to determine if they have a vision that is consistent with it.

What distinguishes the Zeckendorf approach?

One thing that sets us apart is that we don’t typically work with distinct interior designers and exterior architects. Instead, we prefer to have one architect who designs both the interiors and exteriors. This way, the themes are consistent throughout the entire building.

You’re known for placing strong emphasis on thematic consistency in the architecture of your buildings. What does that look like in practice?

We focus on thematic consistency in two ways. First, architectural consistency between the interior design and exterior architecture of the building. Second, architectural consistency between the building and its neighborhood.

For example, at 520 Park Avenue the limestone façade was consistent with the architecture of the East Side.

Further, the 50 United Nations Plaza in New York, designed by Foster + Partners, is in an area strongly imprinted by the architecture of the 1950s and 1960s. The building is very modernist, true to the Norman Foster school of architecture and the United Nations headquarters – conceived by my maternal grandfather, whereas my paternal grandfather owned the land.

You made two major decisions for 520 Park Avenue in Manhattan. First, you purchased the address from the church nearby. Second, you chose to name the building after its address, as opposed to giving it a personal or non-location-based title. Were these decisions a demonstration of how powerful you believe an address is to a property’s brand?

Yes. Park Avenue as an address is a well-known and respected brand in itself. Our building benefits from that address because it drives demand. Our residents enjoy the name recognition of their new home address and it’s easier to locate the building geographically.

Your project, 15 Central Park West, is a very successful condominium development. What contributed to the project’s success?

Right building, right time.

We hit the condominium boom at the right time and provided the best of the “pre-war concepts in post-war architecture” theme. Architect Robert A.M. Stern connected the building to Central Park West in a respectful way, with the light color palette and the limestone, which really set the building apart. Also, we provided an amenity package that was without equal.

What would you say to the developers of tomorrow?

As a developer, what you build will last generations. Take your time and think through your architectural choices and selection.

It’s true that cost pressure is brutal in this business, but good architecture will benefit your bottom line and reputation—which is your personal brand—in the long run.


*This is an excerpt from the upcoming book by The Seventh Art’s founder, Michel Mein: “Branded by design: Construction at the Intersection of Architecture and Branding”


Crisis, Scarcity, and What’s in a Name

Q: You started your real estate career leading the branding and marketing efforts for high-profile projects, like Trump Tower. When you started your own firm, The Sunshine Group, in 1986, you were the exclusive marketing and sales agent for iconic properties such as Time Warner Center, One Beacon Court, Trump International Hotel, Tower NY and 40 Bond. You became the Chairman Emeritus when your firm merged with the Corcoran Group, and now you’re the strategic adviser for Fort Partner, advising on the development and sales of projects such as Surf Club Four Seasons hotel and Private Residences in Miami Beach, where you achieved over $1 billion in sales and sold for record price per square foot. In your long career, spanning several decades, you’ve seen the intersection of architecture and branding change – what have you noticed about this evolution?

A: I think branding and architecture usually go hand-in-hand. They’re co-created.
When buildings go to market without having a strong brand they often don’t succeed. 

And you’re right, I’m associated currently with the developers for all the Four Seasons Hotels and Residences on the Atlantic coastline of Florida. Now Four Seasons is an amazing brand in itself, and doesn’t need to be “developed” – it’s a brand that everyone immediately recognizes and associates with quality. 

However, as far as the rest of the market is concerned and how it evolved over time – I’ve seen it become more difficult, because so many people have adopted different brands and have overused them. 

It’s difficult to identify a brand that’s not already overused. There is now a scarcity of brands that are still meaningful. 

Q: While working on the development of One Columbus Circle at Time Warner you led The Architectural Design Showcase where you invited top renowned designers to participate in this project – each furnished and put their signature on different units within the property. This became a showcase of the artistic potential of the residences, which attracted a great deal of media and public attention. The building was branded as one-of-a-kind, a hot conversation topic. It was a tremendous success – one that will go down in the history of branding. What are your thoughts on this ingenious implementation of branding? 

A: The showcase was photographed and published in two editions of Architectural Digest and also featured on live television and live news shows, like Good Morning America and Goodnight America. It had a tremendous amount of live notice. 

It attracted an extraordinary number of people who either heard about it or read about it in Architectural Digest Magazine and wanted to visit the showcase while it was live on site. There were lines and lines of people wanting to get in. The most interesting thing was the number of eyeballs that viewed it! 

Not only did we get great publicity for the project, but this helped accelerate sales and absorption, and also allowed us to increase prices over time. 

Q: One Columbus Circle is an interesting example of the intersection of branding and architecture because there are two towers within the property – the North Tower and the South Tower. Over the years, there has been much discussion about how to name the project and each of the towers. What impact do you think the branding decision, the name of the tower, made on the building?  

A: I have a very distinct point of view about it because I remember when 9/11 happened – right in the middle of the marketing and sales of this development. Sales of high-rises virtually stopped. It was at that point when I finally convinced the developers to make it the Mandarin Residences. And the Mandarin Residences succeeded in spite of 9/11, when the South Tower continued to be almost stagnant. It was a crisis, a very severe crisis. Today, the Mandarin Residences command a much higher price than the South Tower. Because of the brand. 

Q: What other projects have you worked on that are interesting examples of the intersection between branding and architecture? 

A: One Beacon Court in Manhattan is a good example because it began with a brand we wanted – a prestigious address – and the architecture had to change in order to realize that brand. Before we could get to the conclusion of calling it One Beacon Court, I had to convince Stephen Ross [Chairman and Founder of Related Companies] to create the entrance of the building through the courtyard because originally it was conceived with an entrance on Lexington Avenue. We couldn’t call it One Beacon Court if the entrance was on Lexington Avenue. So we had to create the courtyard, and that was what convinced high-end buyers to buy there. It was then associated with Beacon Court and not Lexington Avenue. With the Bloomberg Tower near there and the residential buildings nearby, that was an important decision.

Q: For One Beacon Court, what impact did the decision to start with branding and then tailor the architecture make on the project?

A: For the developer that was a major decision. For years we were thinking about the court and designing it out of cardboard and making sure it was the right proportions, the right size, the right court. It was an expensive addition to the architecture but a very meaningful one – and it had to be perfect. It adds probably a thousand dollars per square foot to the residences. 

Q: What impact does working on teams and across fields of expertise make for branded architectural projects? 

A: On these projects, you have the brokers sitting at the table next to the developer, next to the architects, branders, and graphic designers. Sixteen or twenty people working together can be very interesting,  and it can be beneficial to have so many brains come together for this sort of vision. 

However, even with all the people coming to work together, you still need people at the top to funnel the input, to make sure it is correct and makes sense.

Q: You were Executive Vice President for the Trump Organization. How did that experience impact your understanding of the intersection between branding and architecture?

A: Working with Donald I learned to use marketing to create value in developments. The most significant thing we did was prove that Trump Residencies were worth $1,000 per square foot more than the residences down the block or down any block of any city, or any resort, or any place. 

We accomplished that by developing value in the name brand. 

This had to be developed through different methodologies, which included architecture, design, services, amenities, and management. Trump always retained the management of his own buildings, which made a huge difference.

Q: Trump’s brand is well known internationally and has been successfully exported to different places in the world. How did the architectural design impact the Trump brand and its ability to go abroad?

A: Trump design was intended for foreign markets, since Trump devotees are international people. And his design was meant for international buyers who loved it.